Monten (monten) wrote,



Норма́нны (норма́ндцы, нурма́ны, викинги, букв. «северные люди») — термин, использовавшийся жителями Западной Европы по отношению к скандинавам, опустошавшим с VIII по XI век морскими разбойничьими набегами государства Европы. Часть одного из скандинавских племенных образований — даны — осела на северном побережье Франции, где признала номинальную вассальную зависимость от франков. В 1066 под предводительством герцога Вильгельма Нормандского, впоследствии Завоевателя, завоевали и покорили Англию, разбив в битве при Гастингсе последнего короля англо-саксов Гарольда Годвинсона. Многие историки отождествляют с норманнами варягов (см. Норманская теория).

The Normans (in French: Normands ; in Latin Nortmanni) were the people[1] who gave their name to Normandy, a region in northern France. They were descended from Norse Viking conquerors of the territory and the native population of Frankish[2] and Gallo-Roman stock.[3] Their identity emerged initially in the first half of the 10th century, and gradually evolved over succeeding centuries.

They played a major political, military, and cultural role in medieval Europe and even the Near East. They were famed for their martial spirit and eventually for their Christian piety. They quickly adopted the Romance language of the land they settled, their dialect becoming known as Norman or Norman-French, an important literary language. The Duchy of Normandy, which they formed by treaty with the French crown, was one of the great fiefs of medieval France. The Normans are famed both for their culture, such as their unique Romanesque architecture, and their musical traditions, as well as for their military accomplishments and innovations. Norman adventurers established a kingdom in Sicily and southern Italy by conquest, and a Norman expedition on behalf of their duke, William the Conqueror, led to the Norman Conquest of England. Norman influence spread from these new centres to the Crusader States in the Near East, to Scotland and Wales in Great Britain, and to Ireland.

Норманнские завоевания отмечены красным
Tags: Великобритания, Италия, Ливия, Россия, Сирия, Тунис, Франция, загадка, история, масоны, норманны

  • Post a new comment


    Anonymous comments are disabled in this journal

    default userpic

    Your reply will be screened

  • 1 comment